Leczenie depresji naturalną terapią biologiczną (Psychobiotyki) cz.4

PsychobiotykiPsychobiotyk jest to żywy organizm który po spożyciu w odpowiedniej ilości daje korzyści dla zdrowia pacjentów cierpiących na choroby  takie jak np. depresja.Do psychobiotyków zaliczamy tzw. probiotyki (podawane doustnie wyselekcjonowane kultury bakterii lub drożdży) , jak również inne bakterie zdolne do wytwarzania i dostarczania substancji neuroaktywnych które działają na oś mózg-jelito, takich jak kwas gamma-aminomasłowy czy serotonina. Wiele chorób psychicznych o charakterze immunologicznym charakteryzuje się przewlekłymi stanami zapalanymi. Depresja i stany lękowe są powszechne u pacjentów z zespołem jelita drażliwego (IBS) która to choroba ma źródło w wadliwie funkcjonującym układzie immunologicznym powodującym stany zapalne jelita. Istnieje mnóstwo dowodów wskazujących na związek między florą bakteryjną jelita a stanem zapalnym. Badania dotyczące szczepów probiotycznych wykazały  zdolność bakterii do modulowania stanu zapalnego i przywracania zdrowych funkcji układowi immunologicznemu. Aplikowanie psychobiotyków powoduje zmniejszenie stanu zapalnego w organizmie a tym samym eliminowanie źródła depresji. Psychobiotyki pełnią jeszcze jedną bardzo istotna funkcje a mianowicie modyfikują funkcję kory nadnerczy która jest odpowiedzialna za kontrolę nad stresem oraz lękiem. Szczepy bakterii probiotycznych takich jak Lactobacillus helveticus oraz Bifdobacterium longum mają zdolność do zmniejszania poziomu hormonów stresu i utrzymania zdrowego spokojnego snu. Ostatnią bardzo istotną funkcją jaką spełniają psychobiotyki w naszym organizmie to bezpośrednio wpływa na poprawę nastroju poprze stymulowanie wytwarzania receptorów kannabinoidowych i opiatów (Lactobacillus acidophilus)[1],[2].

Lista psychobiotyków:

a) Bifidobacterium infantis – tłumi prozapalną odpowiedz immunologiczną odpowiedzialną za depresje. Hamuje cytokiny prozapalne (IFN -gamma , TNF -alfa i IL – 6 ) [3].

b) Lactobacillus Helvetius – zmniejsza objawy depresji oraz lęku [4].

c)  Bifdobacterium longum – zmniejsza objawy depresji oraz lęku [4].

d) Lactobacillus rhamnosus – zmniejsza poziom stresu, lęku i objawów związanych z depresją. Ponadto obniżają poziom hormonu wywołanego stresem, kortykosteronu [5].

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Probiotyk „Primadophilus® Optima „ firmy Nature’s Way zawiera wszystkie wyżej wymienione psychobiotyki . Można go nabyć na http://www.ebay.pl , http://www.allegro.pl. Skład Optima: L. casei-108; B. longum-135;-122 L. acidophilus, L. plantarum-119, L. rhamnosus-111, L. rhamnosus-114, B. breve-129, B. bifidum-132; L. lactis-136; S. thermophilus-110; B. infantis-116, L. bulgaricus-137; L. salivarius-118, L-128 helveticus .

Dawkowanie to jedna tabletka raz dziennie w trakcie posiłku. Probiotyk _______________________________________________________

Bibliografia


[1] 
Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov 15;74(10):720-6. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.05.001. Epub 2013 Jun 10. Psychobiotics: a novel class of psychotropic. Dinan TG, Stanton C, Cryan JF. Author information Abstract Here, we define a psychobiotic as a live organism that, when ingested in adequate amounts, produces a health benefit in patients suffering from psychiatric illness. As a class of probiotic, these bacteria are capable of producing and delivering neuroactive substances such as gamma-aminobutyric acid and serotonin, which act on the brain-gut axis. Preclinical evaluation in rodents suggests that certain psychobiotics possess antidepressant or anxiolytic activity. Effects may be mediated via the vagus nerve, spinal cord, or neuroendocrine systems. So far, psychobiotics have been most extensively studied in a liaison psychiatric setting in patients with irritable bowel syndrome, where positive benefits have been reported for a number of organisms including Bifidobacterium infantis. Evidence is emerging of benefits in alleviating symptoms of depression and in chronic fatigue syndrome. Such benefits may be related to the anti-inflammatory actions of certain psychobiotics and a capacity to reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Results from large scale placebo-controlled studies are awaited.


[2] 
Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2013 Sep;25(9):713-9. doi: 10.1111/nmo.12198. Melancholic microbes: a link between gut microbiota and depression? Dinan TG, Cryan JF. Author information Abstract There is a growing awareness of the potential for microbiota to influence gut-brain communication in health and disease. A variety of strategies have been used to study the impact of the microbiota on brain function and these include antibiotic use, probiotic treatments, fecal microbiota transplantation, gastrointestinal infection studies, and germ-free studies. All of these approaches provide evidence to support the view that the microbiota can influence brain chemistry and consequently behavior. Efforts are now turning to investigate the role of microbiota in animal models of psychopathology. Animal models of depression are thus essential in studying the complex interplay between the microbiota and brain. Recent studies published in this Journal and elsewhere demonstrate that there is a distinct perturbation of the composition of gut microbiota in animal models of depression and chronic stress. This has direct implications for the development of psychobiotic-based therapeutic strategies for psychiatric disorders. Moreover, given that affective co-morbidities, such as major depression and anxiety states, are common in patients presenting with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it may have implications for functional bowel disorders also. Further studies require appropriately phenotyped patients with depression and/or IBS using a judicious use of techniques including functional imaging and in depth microbial pyrosequencing. 


[3] 
J Psychiatr Res. 2008 Dec;43(2):164-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.03.009. Epub 2008 May 5. The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: An assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat. Desbonnet L, Garrett L, Clarke G, Bienenstock J, Dinan TG. Author information Abstract It is becoming increasingly apparent that probiotics are important to the health of the host. The absence of probiotic bacteria in the gut can have adverse effects not only locally in the gut, but has also been shown to affect central HPA and monoaminergic activity, features that have been implicated in the aetiology of depression. To evaluate the potential antidepressant properties of probiotics, we tested rats chronically treated with Bifidobacteria infantis in the forced swim test, and also assessed the effects on immune, neuroendocrine and central monoaminergic activity. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 14 days with B. infantis. Probiotic administration in naive rats had no effect on swim behaviours on day 3 or day 14 following the commencement of treatment. However, there was a significant attenuation of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-6 cytokines following mitogen stimulation (p<0.05) in probiotic-treated rats relative to controls. Furthermore, there was a marked increase in plasma concentrations of tryptophan (p<0.005) and kynurenic acid (p<0.05) in the bifidobacteria-treated rats when compared to controls. Bifidobacteria treatment also resulted in a reduced 5-HIAA concentration in the frontal cortex and a decrease in DOPAC in the amygdaloid cortex. The attenuation of pro-inflammatory immune responses, and the elevation of the serotonergic precursor, tryptophan by bifidobacteria treatment, provides encouraging evidence in support of the proposition that this probiotic may possess antidepressant properties. However, these findings are preliminary and further investigation into the precise mechanisms involved, is warranted. 


[4] 
Br J Nutr. 2011 Mar;105(5):755-64. doi: 10.1017/S0007114510004319. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Assessment of psychotropic-like properties of a probiotic formulation (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175) in rats and human subjects. Messaoudi M, Lalonde R, Violle N, Javelot H, Desor D, Nejdi A, Bisson JF, Rougeot C, Pichelin M, Cazaubiel M, Cazaubiel JM. Author information Abstract In a previous clinical study, a probiotic formulation (PF) consisting of Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 (PF) decreased stress-induced gastrointestinal discomfort. Emerging evidence of a role for gut microbiota on central nervous system functions therefore suggests that oral intake of probiotics may have beneficial consequences on mood and psychological distress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anxiolytic-like activity of PF in rats, and its possible effects on anxiety, depression, stress and coping strategies in healthy human volunteers. In the preclinical study, rats were daily administered PF for 2 weeks and subsequently tested in the conditioned defensive burying test, a screening model for anti-anxiety agents. In the clinical trial, volunteers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised parallel group study with PF administered for 30 d and assessed with the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-90), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Stress Scale, the Coping Checklist (CCL) and 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Daily subchronic administration of PF significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviour in rats (P < 0•05) and alleviated psychological distress in volunteers, as measured particularly by the HSCL-90 scale (global severity index, P < 0•05; somatisation, P < 0•05; depression, P < 0•05; and anger-hostility, P < 0•05), the HADS (HADS global score, P < 0•05; and HADS-anxiety, P < 0•06), and by the CCL (problem solving, P < 0•05) and the UFC level (P < 0•05). L. helveticus R0052 and B. longum R0175 taken in combination display anxiolytic-like activity in rats and beneficial psychological effects in healthy human volunteers.


[5] 
Javier A. Bravo, Paul Forsythe, Marianne V. Chew, Emily Escaravage, Hélène M. Savignac, Timothy G. Dinan, John Bienenstock, John F. Cryan. Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptorexpression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1102999108

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